Grund et al. (2021). Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017.

Bibliographic Information

Creator: Grund, Axel; Fries, Stefan; Senker, Kerstin

Contributor: Grund, Axel; Fries, Stefan; Senker, Kerstin

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)

Title: Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017.

Year of Publication: 2021

Citation: Grund, A., Fries, S., & Senker, K. (2021). Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017 [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID.


The aim of the study was to initially relate different aspects of self-regulation to the everyday experience of students (“preliminary study”). The focus was on the constructs mindfulness, self-control, affect, and motivation. The special feature of the study is that these constructs were operationalized at both trait and state level. Sample was a casual sample of students (N = 57) at Bielefeld University. The study design was as follows: first, students were familiarized with the study design in small groups. In addition, trait measurement of the different constructs (e.g., trait mindfulness and self-control) was conducted via self-report questionnaire, and study participants loaded an experience sampling (ES) software (LifeData) onto their private smartphones. They then provided information about their momentary experience and behavior at random times throughout the day over a period of one week (up to 35 measurements per person in total). Central constructs in the ES were momentary affect, mindfulness, and motivational conflict experience. Subsequently, the study participants received monetary compensation of up to 40 euros depending on their compliance with the ES and answered some of the trait questionnaires again to determine possible changes over time.

In a first publication, trait and state mindfulness were found to converge and to be associated with a lower experience of conflict, even when the current state of mind of the study participants was controlled (Senker, Fries, & Grund, 2020).

Due to the high cost of ES studies, additional constructs beyond these core constructs were collected at both the trait and state levels (e.g., trait well-being, achievement motive, and responses to conflict experience). In particular, in addition to the ES, there was a daily “evening questionnaire” at a fixed time, in which assessments of daily time use, stress experience, and achievement emotions were to be given. No publications have been made on this to date.



Study Description

Research Questions/Hypotheses: We hypothesized that both higher trait and state mindfulness in everyday life would be associated with lower conflict experience. In addition, we hypothesized that state-mindfulness would be predicted by trait-mindfulness.

Research Design: Fully Standardized Survey Instrument (provides question formulation and answer options); repeated measurement

Measurement Instruments/Apparatus:

Where possible, we used validated instruments for operationalization. This applies in particular to the trait measurements. For the state measurements of mindfulness, we developed our own items on the basis of the relevant literature, each with 4 statements covering two central aspects of mindfulness, present orientation or “presence” and acceptance without evaluation or “equanimity”, analogous to the trait level, whereby the content validity of both facets of state mindfulness was particularly important to us, as well as the possibility of calculating various quality criteria of the measurement accuracy. In this sense, the present study was also intended as a test of these items.

Specifically, subjects were asked to comment on statements such as “I rush through what I was doing without really being attentive to it.” (Presence_1) or “I performed the activity without judging it greatly. (“Equi_2”) with reference to their current experience and behavior (or their experience and behavior before the ES signal reached them) (cf. Senker et al., 2020).

Data Collection Method:

Survey in the presence of an investigator
– group default
– computerized
– special apparatus or measuring instruments, namely: Trait questionnaires: Unipark

Survey in the absence of an investigator
– Other method, namely: Experience sampling: LifeData software (on study participants’ private smartphones).

Population: East aStudents at Bielefeld University

Survey Time Period:

Intensive longitudinal design (cf. Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013); up to 42 (or 48 with follow-up option) measurement time points nested within individuals

Sample: Convenience sample

Gender Distribution:

68% female
32 % male

Age Distribution: 19 to 39 years

Spatial Coverage (Country/Region/City): Germany/East Westphalia

Subject Recruitment:

Potential participants were recruited in various lectures at Bielefeld University. In addition, information flyers were posted.

The central criterion was to be actively studying at Bielefeld University at the time of the study (i.e. attending events, etc.).

Sample Size: 56 individuals

Return/DropOut: One person was excluded due to technical problems during experience sampling. One person did not participate in the post-measurement (= complete post-measurements of 55 persons).


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Senker, K., Fries, S., & Grund, A. (2020). Mindfulness in everyday life: between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts. Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-020-00760-x
Utilized Test Methods
Utilized Test Methods
Achtsamkeit (CHIME): Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2014). Konstruktion und erste Validierung eines Fragebogens zur umfassenden Erfassung von Achtsamkeit. Diagnostica, 60(3), 111–125.
Selbstkontrolle (SCS-K-D): Bertrams, A., & Dickhäuser, O. (2009). Messung dispositioneller Selbstkontroll-Kapazität. Diagnostica, 55(1), 2–10.
Motivationales Konflikterleben: Grund, A., Grunschel, C., Bruhn, D. & Fries, S. (2015). Torn between want and should: An experience-sampling study on motivational conflict, well-being, self-control, and mindfulness. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 506–520. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9476-z
Selbstmitgefühl (SCS): Hupfeld, J., & Ruffieux, N. (2011). Validierung einer deutschen Version der Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-D). Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 40(2), 115–123.
Affektives Wohlbefinden (PANAS:) Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der „Positive and Negative Affect Schedule“ (PANAS). [Investigations with a German version of the PANAS]. Diagnostica, 42, 139–156.
Leistungsmotive (AMS): Lang, J. & Fries, S. (2006). A Revised 10-Item Version of the Achievement Motives Scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(3), 216–224. DOI 10.1027/1015-5759.22.3.216.
Achtsamkeit (MAAS): Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Ströhle, G., & Nachtigall, C. (2008). Die deutsche Version der Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) Psychometrische Befunde zu einem Achtsamkeitsfragebogen. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 37(3), 200–208.
Soziale Erwünschheit (BIDR): Musch, J., Brockhaus, R., & Bröder, A. (2002). Ein Inventar zur Erfassung von zwei Faktoren sozialer Erwünschtheit. Diagnostica, 48(3), 121–129.
Lernemotionen (AEQ): Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Barchfeld, P., & Perry, R. P. (2011). Measuring emotions in students' learning and performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 36–48.
Positive und negative Aktivierung (PANAVA): Schallberger, U. (2005). Kurzskalen zur Erfassung der Positiven Aktivierung, Negativen
Aktivierung und Valenz in Experience Sampling Studien (PANAVA-KS). Research reports from the project "Quality of experience inwork and leisure", 6. Zürich: Psychologisches Institut der Universität Zürich.
Achtsamkeit (KIMS): Ströhle, G., Nachtigall, C., Michalak, J., & Heidenreich, T. (2010). Die Erfassung von Achtsamkeit als mehrdimensionales Konstrukt. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 39(1), 1–12.
Allgemeine Lebenszufriedenheit (TFSF): Trautwein, U. (2004). Die temporalen Facetten der Lebenszufriedenheit: Eine deutsche Adaptation der Skalavon Pavot, Dienerund Suh (1998). Diagnostica, 50, 182-192.
Stress (PSS-4): Warttig, S. L., Forshaw, M. J., South, J., & White, A. K. (2013). New, normative, English-sample data for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Journal of Health Psychology, 18(12), 1617–1628.
Studienzufriedenheit & Studienbelastung (StuZu & StuBel): Westermann, R., Heise, E., Spies, K. & Trautwein, U. (1996). Identifikation und Erfassung von Komponenten der Studienzufriedenheit. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 43, 1–22.
Further Reading
Further Reading
Grund, A., Grunschel, C., Bruhn, D., & Fries, S. (2015). Torn between want and should: An experience-sampling study on motivational conflict, well-being, self-control, and mindfulness. Motivation and Emotion, 39(4), 506-520. doi:10.1007/s11031-015-9476-z
Grund, A., & Senker, K. (2018). Motivational foundations of self-control and mindfulness and their role in study-leisure conflicts. Learning and Individual Differences, 68, 72-84. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2018.10.007
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