Creator: Grund, Axel; Fries, Stefan; Senker, Kerstin
Contributor: Grund, Axel; Fries, Stefan; Senker, Kerstin
Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Title: Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017.
Year of Publication: 2021
Citation: Grund, A., Fries, S., & Senker, K. (2021). Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017 [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.gdal17pr09
The aim of the study was to initially relate different aspects of self-regulation to the everyday experience of students (“preliminary study”). The focus was on the constructs mindfulness, self-control, affect, and motivation. The special feature of the study is that these constructs were operationalized at both trait and state level. Sample was a casual sample of students (N = 57) at Bielefeld University. The study design was as follows: first, students were familiarized with the study design in small groups. In addition, trait measurement of the different constructs (e.g., trait mindfulness and self-control) was conducted via self-report questionnaire, and study participants loaded an experience sampling (ES) software (LifeData) onto their private smartphones. They then provided information about their momentary experience and behavior at random times throughout the day over a period of one week (up to 35 measurements per person in total). Central constructs in the ES were momentary affect, mindfulness, and motivational conflict experience. Subsequently, the study participants received monetary compensation of up to 40 euros depending on their compliance with the ES and answered some of the trait questionnaires again to determine possible changes over time.
In a first publication, trait and state mindfulness were found to converge and to be associated with a lower experience of conflict, even when the current state of mind of the study participants was controlled (Senker, Fries, & Grund, 2020).
Due to the high cost of ES studies, additional constructs beyond these core constructs were collected at both the trait and state levels (e.g., trait well-being, achievement motive, and responses to conflict experience). In particular, in addition to the ES, there was a daily “evening questionnaire” at a fixed time, in which assessments of daily time use, stress experience, and achievement emotions were to be given. No publications have been made on this to date.
Research Questions/Hypotheses: We hypothesized that both higher trait and state mindfulness in everyday life would be associated with lower conflict experience. In addition, we hypothesized that state-mindfulness would be predicted by trait-mindfulness.
Research Design: Fully Standardized Survey Instrument (provides question formulation and answer options); repeated measurement
Where possible, we used validated instruments for operationalization. This applies in particular to the trait measurements. For the state measurements of mindfulness, we developed our own items on the basis of the relevant literature, each with 4 statements covering two central aspects of mindfulness, present orientation or “presence” and acceptance without evaluation or “equanimity”, analogous to the trait level, whereby the content validity of both facets of state mindfulness was particularly important to us, as well as the possibility of calculating various quality criteria of the measurement accuracy. In this sense, the present study was also intended as a test of these items.
Specifically, subjects were asked to comment on statements such as “I rush through what I was doing without really being attentive to it.” (Presence_1) or “I performed the activity without judging it greatly. (“Equi_2”) with reference to their current experience and behavior (or their experience and behavior before the ES signal reached them) (cf. Senker et al., 2020).
Data Collection Method:
Survey in the presence of an investigator
– group default
– special apparatus or measuring instruments, namely: Trait questionnaires: Unipark
Survey in the absence of an investigator
– Other method, namely: Experience sampling: LifeData software (on study participants’ private smartphones).
Population: East aStudents at Bielefeld University
Survey Time Period:
Intensive longitudinal design (cf. Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013); up to 42 (or 48 with follow-up option) measurement time points nested within individuals
Sample: Convenience sample
32 % male
Age Distribution: 19 to 39 years
Spatial Coverage (Country/Region/City): Germany/East Westphalia
Potential participants were recruited in various lectures at Bielefeld University. In addition, information flyers were posted.
The central criterion was to be actively studying at Bielefeld University at the time of the study (i.e. attending events, etc.).
Sample Size: 56 individuals
Return/DropOut: One person was excluded due to technical problems during experience sampling. One person did not participate in the post-measurement (= complete post-measurements of 55 persons).