Creator: Max-Planck-Institut für psychologische Forschung; Weinert, Franz; Schneider, Wolfgang
Contributor: Schneider, Wolfgang; Sodian, Beate; Knopf, Monika; Weber, Angelika
Funding: Max Planck Society; Volkswagen Foundation; Jacobs Foundation
Title: Scientific data of the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC): Memory development
Year of Publication: 2014
Citation: Schneider, W., Sodian, B., Knopf, M., & Weber, A. (2014). Scientific data of the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC): Memory development [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.kfma05lo30
The Munich “Longitudinal Study of the Genesis of Individual Competencies” (LOGIC) is a comprehensive examination of the differential description of developmental trajectories of cognitive skills and personality characteristics. It also describes individual differences in development due to the influence of varying school and classroom conditions. The changing state of the development of intelligence, psychomotor behavior, thinking, memory, school knowledge, motivation, personal characteristics, social skills and preferences, and moral reasoning and action were regularly reported. Beginning in 1984, 9 annual survey waves were carried out encompassing 3 points of measurement each. 205 children (aged 4 years and older) from 20 different kindergartens in Munich and from the Fürstenfeldbruck area were examined. In 1997-1998, a follow-up study (wave 10) was conducted with the now 18-year-old subjects. The most recent survey (wave 11) took place in 2003-2005. For this wave, 153 subjects (74.6%) of the initial sample could be obtained. The entire study thus extends over an age range from preschool age to young adulthood (Schneider & Bullock, 2009, Weinert & Schneider, 1999).
The development of memory components was investigated at the ages of 4-12, 18, and 23 years. Main focus of the study was: (1) the development of memory capacity, (2) the development of strategic memory, (3) text memory, (4) autobiographical memory.
Results showed a slow and steady increase in memory capacity reaching its peak at the ages of 18 to 23 years. No linear increase could be demonstrated in memory strategy use, individual analyses rather showed qualitative leaps in the developmental course of strategic memory. The stability of interindividual differences across age was high. Intercorrelations among the memory components were of only moderate size at the start of the study and did not notably change over the course of the project (Knopf, Schneider, Sodian & Kolling, 2008, Schneider, Hasselhorn & Körkel, 2003, Sodian & Schneider, 1999).
Research Design: Questionnaire Data: Fully Standardized Survey Instrument; Experimental Data: Laboratory Experiment; repeated measurements
Memory capacity was tested using tasks for word and sentence memory (cf. Schneider, Knopf & Sodian, 2009). During the word and sentence span tasks, words and short phrases were presented and had to be repeated in the correct order. The number of words/sentences was continually increased until the working memory’s capacity limit was reached and the words/sentences could hardly be repeated any more. The number of words/sentences that were just barely able to be repeated correctly was considered memory span. The sentence span task was performed at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 18 and 23 years. The word span task was used at ages 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11 years.
Modeled after a procedure from Fox and Routh (1976, 1984), a pair association task was performed. The subjects had to memorize the names of letter-like symbols and were then tested. The symbol names were repeated once again if the allocation was false or missing. The subjects received a total of 6 attempts, during which the order of the symbols was varied randomly. If two symbols in a row were allocated correctly, the attempt was discontinued early. The pair association task was used at ages 6, 7, 8 and 11 years.
To assess strategic, conscious learning and memory of categorizing terms, a sort-recall task was used. A large number of pictures on cards were to be memorized in a short time and then recalled as completely as possible. The objects on the cards could be sorted using categories (e.g. colour, furniture etc.) Strategies relevant to memory such as organizing (clustering) the items during the learning phase and during recall from long-term memory were assessed. The sort-recall task was performed at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 23 years.
Relationships between meta-memory and memory were studied in two experiments. Both experiments are based on a concealment task for which retrieval cues can be used. These retrieval-cue tasks with meta-memory were investigated at 5 and 7 years (Schneider & Sodian, 1988).
To assess knowledge about the usefulness of retrieval cues, an interview from C. Beal (1985) was used at ages 7 and 9 years.
Autobiographical Memory and Text Memory
To assess autobiographical memory, interview questions about standardized events were asked in waves 1 to 9 (each adapted for age). These were staged events in kindergarten, visits at the Max Planck Institute and film events. To assess text memory, different stories were presented and then remembered freely as well as possible. The datasets on autobiographical and text memory are still being processed and will be made available as soon as possible.
Data Collection Method:
Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
– Individual Administration
– Paper and Pencil
– Photographs, Video and Audio Recordings
– reaction time
Survey Time Period:
1st wave: 1984 – 1985
2nd wave: 1985 – 1986
3rd wave: 1986 – 1987
4th wave: 1987 – 1988
5th wave: 1988 – 1989
6th wave: 1989 – 1990
7th wave: 1990 – 1991
8th wave: 1991 – 1992
9th wave: 1992 – 1993
10th wave: 1997 – 1998
11th wave: 2003 – 2005
Sample: Selection of 20 kindergartens in Greater Munich and in the Fürstenfeldbruck area (near Munich), that corresponded to socio-economic criteria of (West) Germany’s general population in the year 1984. After information sessions at each of the facilities, 205 children were recruited. After the first assessment year (wave 1) approx. another 20 children were recruited
1st wave: 49% female subjects (n=100); 51% male subjects (n=105)
2nd wave: 48% female subjects (n=104); 52% male subjects (n=113)
3rd wave: 48% female subjects (n=102); 52% male subjects (n=111)
4th wave: 49% female subjects (n=98); 51% male subjects (n=105)
5th wave: 48% female subjects (n=96); 52% male subjects (n=104)
6th wave: 48% female subjects (n=93); 52% male subjects (n=100)
7th wave: 48% female subjects (n=93); 52% male subjects (n=101)
8th wave: 47% female subjects (n=89); 53% male subjects (n=100)
9th wave: 47% female subjects (n=87); 53% male subjects (n=99)
10th wave: 47% female subjects (n=81); 53% male subjects (n=93)
Age Distribution: 4 – 12 years (wave 1 – 9); 18 years (wave 10); 23 years (wave 11)
Spatial Coverage (Country/Region/City): Germany/Bavaria/Munich
Subject Recruitment: Personal contact to parents and subjects through psychological-technical assistants over the course of 20 years. Small gifts on special occasions. Yearly Christmas and birthday greetings with individually selected post cards. Individual aptitude tests for schooling and career paths as well as general counselling offered and performed by academic staff. Publication of a newsletter for the sample in the early assessment waves. Festive completion event in 1993 with gifts. Copy of the book “Development in Childhood” sent free of charge. During waves 10 and 11, subject compensation and offer of comparative performance evaluation.
Sample Size: 205 individuales (wave 1)
Return/DropOut: After a drop out of 13 children in wave 2, a further 25 children were recruited, resulting in the following sample sizes for the further waves: 217 in wave 2; 213 in wave 3; 204 in wave 4; 200 in wave 5; 195 in wave 6; 194 in wave 7; 189 in wave 8; 186 in wave 9; 176 in wave 10 and still 153 subjects in wave 11.
The response rate was 74.6% in wave 11. The data on sample sizes refer to the entire LOGIC study. The number of subjects may vary between each of the single assessments.